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  1. Book Series: Current Topics in Membranes
  2. The Eye's Aqueous Humor: From Secretion to Glaucoma, Volume 45

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Impact Factor 3. Finally, suggestions were made that the role of ARVO in research could be expanded in developing a consensus on terminology and techniques. An ARVO consensus committee could resolve such issues. At present the comparisons of results from different laboratories can be difficult because of differences in culture media, serum supplements, and other culture conditions. Clark, Alcon Research Inc. Submitted for publication July 19, ; revised August 14, ; accepted August 25, Disclosure: M. Fautsch , None; D. Johnson , None. The publication costs of this article were defrayed in part by page charge payment.

Corresponding author: Michael P. T able 1. View Table. How do cells respond to environmental change IOP, stretch, shear stress? Does this differ from other endothelia? How do cells alter their formation and degradation of extracellular matrix in response to environmental changes? How rapidly? What cellular dynamics lead to giant vacuole formation: role of the cytoskeleton and cell membrane? Is formation of giant vacuoles a general characteristic of all endothelial cells if perfused from basal to apical aspects of the cell?

Some cells form giant vacuoles, whereas others are flat. Is this a cellular phenomena or does it relate to aqueous flow pathways upstream? Is their formation a property of the cell membrane when stressed or stretched? Defining the role of the extracellular matrix in the outflow pathway 1. What is the role of individual extracellular matrix molecules in the aqueous outflow pathway?

Can these be studied with gene-silencing techniques i. What is the phenotype of the aqueous outflow pathway in existing extracellular matrix protein knockout or knockin mouse models of extracellular matrix proteins? Are advanced glycation end-products AGE present in the trabecular meshwork?

What would be the effect on TM cells of an extracellular matrix that had AGE or oxidative modifications? Do posttranslational protein modifications change in the trabecular meshwork with age and disease associations? What causes the increase in outflow resistance with fixation in enucleated eyes? Is this due to changes in the extracellular matrix or to stiffening of the cells?

Is this the same site that causes the increased outflow resistance in POAG? Studying the uveoscleral pathway 1. What is the extent of outflow through the uveoscleral pathway when compared to total aqueous outflow in human eyes? Does this percentage change with age? How much aqueous is absorbed into choroidal blood? How much aqueous crosses the sclera and enters the orbit?

Can an imaging system be designed that would enable visualization of uveoscleral outflow, ideally in the living human? Comparison of normal and POAG aqueous humor outflow 1.

Book Series: Current Topics in Membranes

Are changes in aqueous humor proteins in POAG i. Why does aqueous outflow resistance increase with age? Is there a physiologic reason that POAG becomes increasingly common at about the same age that presbyopia develops? Does aqueous outflow resistance change at night? Do existing knock-out mice models have glaucoma-associated changes? Models of outflow 1. Can animal models be designed and utilized in the study of the aqueous outflow pathway and POAG?

Are phenotype differences lost when cells are cultured in vitro? Can cell cultures become more physiologic, matching cellular characteristics of fresh, noncultured cells? Identification of appropriate medium, substrate, and incubation conditions i. Calculations of flow resistance in the juxtacanalicular meshwork. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. Curr Eye Res. Specific targeting of gene expression to a subset of human trabecular meshwork cells using the chitinase 3-like 1 promoter.

Applications of laser capture microdissection in the study of neurodegenerative disease. Arch Neurol. Mechanotrasduction and signaling in myocardium.

The Eye's Aqueous Humor: From Secretion to Glaucoma, Volume 45

Circ Res. Overview: temporal and spatial relationships in shear stress-mediated endothelial signalling. J Vasc Res. Biophys J. Modulation of outflow resistance by the pores of the inner wall endothelium.


Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy. Two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy. Ann Rev Biomed Eng. Measurement of membrane protein lateral diffusion in single cells. Lateral motion of fluorescently labeled acetylcholine receptors in membranes of developing muscle fibers. From fixed to FRAB: measuring protein mobility and activity in living cells. Nat Cell Biol. What controls aqueous humor outflow?. Exp Eye Res. Antibody blockade of junctional adhesion molecule-A in rabbit corneal endothelial tight junctions produces corneal swelling.

Signal transduction and signal modulation by cell adhesion receptors: the role of integrins, cadherins, immunoglobulin-cell adhesion molecules, and selectins. Pharmacol Rev. BornsteinP, SageEH. Matricellular proteins: extracellular modulators of cell function. Curr Opin Cell Biol. Biophysical chemistry of cartilaginous tissues with special reference to solute and fluid transport. BaranyEH, ScotchbrookS.

Anterior Eye: Aqueous Humor Pathway

Influence of testicular hyaluronidase on the resistance to flow through the angle of the anterior chamber. Acta Physiol Scand. Effects of intracameral injection of chondroitinase ABC in vivo. Arch Ophthalmol. Intraocular pressure and outflow facility are unchanged following acute and chronic intracameral chondroitinase ABC and hyaluronidase in monkeys. Glycosaminoglycans of the human trabecular meshwork in primary open angle glaucoma. Review and outline of environmental SEM at present. J Microsc. Why is intraocular pressure elevated in chronic simple glaucoma? The evolution of the primate eye in relation to the problem of glaucoma.

Basic Aspects of Glaucoma Research. Schattauer Stuttgart, Germany. Morphological basis for drug action on aqueous outflow. DranceSM eds. Applied Pharmacology in the Medical Treatment of Glaucomas. Grune and Stratton New York. H7 effects on the structure and fluid conductance of monkey trabecular meshwork. Functional and structural reversibility of H-7 effects on the conventional aqueous outflow pathway in monkeys.

Latrunculin B effects on trabecular meshwork and corneal endothelial morphology in monkeys. Effects of tatrunculin-B on outflow facility and trabecular meshwork structure in human eyes. The regulation of trabecular meshwork and ciliary muscle contractility. Prog Retin Eye Res. Regulation of outflow rate and resistance in the perfused anterior segment of the bovine eye. The heparin II domain of fibronectin modulates aqueous outflow in cultured anterior segments of human eyes. Uveoscleral drainage of aqueous humor: physiology and pharmacology. Alan R. Liss New York. Conventional and uveo-scleral drainage of aqueous humour in the cynomolgus monkey Macaca irus at normal and high intraocular pressures.

Aqueous humor dynamics in mice. Uveoscleral outflow: the other outflow pathway Review. J Glaucoma. Effects of prostaglandins on the aqueous humor outflow pathways. Surv Ophthalmol. Aqueous humor dynamics in the aging human eye. Am J Ophthalmol. Aqueous humor dynamics in ocular hypertensive patients. Proteomics reveal Cochlin deposits associated with glaucomatous trabecular meshwork. J Biol Chem. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in the aqueous humor of patients with and without glaucoma.

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Vascular endothelial growth factor is increased in aqueous humor of glaucomatous eyes. Aqueous humor in primary open-angle glaucoma contains an increased level of CD44s. Aqueous humor in glaucomatous eyes contains an increased level of TGF-beta 2. Plasma and aqueous humor endothelin levels in primary open-angle glaucoma. Effects of TGF-B2 in perfused human eyes. Oxidative stress markers in aqueous humor of glaucoma patients. The role of oxidative damage and stress in aging.

Mech Ageing Dev. Oxidative DNA damage in the human trabecular meshwork. Activation of a tissue-specific stress response in the aqueous outflow pathway of the eye defines the glaucoma disease phenotype. Nat Med. The Maillard reaction in eye diseases. Ann NY Acad Sci. Negative consequences of glycation. Glycation in diabetic neuropathy: characteristics, consequences, causes, and therapeutic options.

Int Rev Neurobiol. UlrichP, CeramiA.